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   Daily Blog - Tiger Software

                   December 11, 2007

BASTA!  End The US Embargo on
   Trade with Cuba. 

   Forty-Six Years Is Long Enough!

 Foolish Forty-Year Cuban Embargo
   Shows How Vulnerable American
   Political System Is To Vocal
   Anti-Castro Cubans in Florida.

   Terrorism Is Terrorism.  American Foreign
   Policy Has Caused Too Much Repression
   in Cuba, Guatemala and Honduras.

    Coming Soon:
"Stocks To Buy if US and Cuba
       Normalize Trade Relations.
Cuba after Fidel Castro."

William Schmidt, - Tiger Software's Creator
      (C) 2007 William Schmidt, Ph. D.  - All Rights Reserved. 

      No reproductions of this blog or quoting from it
      without explicit written consent by its author is permitted.

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End The Embargo of US Trade with Cuba.
          I Would Love To Visit Cuba Legally!

               Why do Cuban-Americans like Miami so much?
               Because it is so close to the United States.

               Castro Is Ill.  Cubans in Miami Go Wild

      wpe32.jpg (40332 bytes) 
                                             (By Al Diaz -- Miami Herald)
                 Cuban Exiles in Miami: Where is their loyalty?
                               The large community of Cuba exiles in Southern Florida have political influence
                in the US far past their size due to their location in a key swing state and their apparent
                cohesiveness in favor ways to pressure Castro, most notably maintaining the embargo on
                trade with Cuba.   That unity is breaking up. 
Cuban Exiles on the Trade Embargo: Interviews

  This Is The Cuba
       That Americans Never Get To See.

wpe25.jpg (29954 bytes)        wpe26.jpg (26186 bytes)
Outdoor café in Old Havana (photo by Linda Garrett)            UNESCO provided funding for the restoration of Old Town

wpe25.jpg (25182 bytes)                          wpe2B.jpg (21045 bytes)
                ( Havana apartment building (photo by Linda Garrett )           Classic cars dot the landscape (photo by Linda Garrett)

wpe2B.jpg (3695 bytes)      Why Is Cuba Still Off Limits to
                           American Tourists, Investment,
                           Commerce and Ideas?  

                Bush's Answer:  "Trade with Cuba does not benefit the people of Cuba.  It is used
                to prop up a repressive regime".  The  46-year old trade embargo  is a "vital part of America's
                policy toward Cuba."

          The Real Answer: Cuban Exiles Shape American Foreign Policy

                      In a nutshell, the answer is our foreign policy towards Cuba is dominated by
             minority special interest politics and, apparently, a ridiculous fear of Cuban socialism spreading
             to America in the arena of health care.  The central truth is that American politicians seem deathly
             afraid of the Cuban émigré population in pivotal Florida.  American politicians, other than Jimmy Carter,
             refuse to call for the end of the embargo.  Cuba-American relations mean little to most
             Americans, but they mean a lot to the anti-Castro Cubans in Florida.  So, an American politician
             gains nothing by calling for the end to this the foolish 47-year old embargo.  And he loses votes
             from the very vocal Cuban Americans in Miami.  Both Democratic and Republican Congressmen
             and Presidents have failed America, at large, in the matter of American relations to Cuba.  The
             anti-Castro Cubans in Miami are more of a menace to America than they are to Castro.

August 29, 2007 
                   "CUBAN EXILE TERRORIST: 1500 guns, Live Grenade, 35 Machine Guns and More!"
In April 2006, police entered the home of Cuban exile, Robert Ferro.
                  They found 1500 guns, 35 machine guns, 130 silencers, a live hand
                  grenade, a rocket launcher tube and 89,000 rounds of ammunition.
                  What was he doing with such an arms cache?...

                     For more than 40 years, Miami-based, anti-Cuba terrorist organizations
                  have launched repeated terrorist actions against Cuba and its people,
                  with the knowledge and support of the FBI and CIA. Upwards of 3,000
                   Cubans have died as a result of these terrorists’ attacks.
http://hcvanalysis.wordpress.com/2007/08/29/cuban-exile-terrorist-1500-guns-live-grenade-35-machine-guns-and-more/ )


                   How Important is the Cuban exile community to George Bush?

  "It is very important, both electorally and financially. As I mention in my article, Karl Rove,
                             the President’s chief political strategist, recently described Florida as “ground zero” for
                             the 2004 elections. If you look at the math, Florida’s electoral votes could once again
                             be decisive. That makes the Cuban exiles a pretty crucial constituency. The Florida Cubans
                             gave Bush two hundred and fifty thousand more votes than they gave Gore—in a contest
                             that was decided, of course, by five hundred and thirty-seven votes. The exiles are also big
                             political contributors, mainly to the Republican Party. The question this year is whether
                             Cuban-Americans are still so solidly in the Bush camp...

                            "There have been many intersections between George H. W. Bush’s career and the
                            Cuban-exile epic, and there are plenty of theories that try to tie them all together. These
                            narratives tend to place Bush in the thick of the Bay of Pigs invasion (he had an offshore
                            oil-drilling rig near Cuba), the J.F.K. assassination (Cuban exiles were often accused of
                            involvement), Watergate (several of the plumbers were Cuban), and the Iran-Contra
                            scandal (not really a stretch). And, of course, the roles played by Jeb and the Cuban exiles
                           in ultimately delivering Florida to George W. in 2000"

                           (Source: http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2004/03/15/040315on_onlineonly01 )

            The Embargo Has Been A Complete Failure.

                     It did not bring the overthrow of Castro!  Cuba is one of the few remaining countries
            still having a one-party Marxist government.   The Embargo denies the US any influence.    It is
            a slegehammer approach.   It is counterproductive to greater human rights in Cuba.  It is an
            all-or-nothing policy.   A 1996 US law requires the embargo to be continued until there is a
            new Cuban government that "does not include Fidel Castro or Raul Castro".  Surely a
            more calibrated US trade policy towards Cuba could better bring some releases of political prisoners
            and freer expression there.  Sadly, the Embargo hurts the Cuba people, but strengthens Castro. 
            It gives him justification for tighter political controls to defend "Cuban socialism"against
            Yankee imperialism;   America is easiliy portrayed as an uncaring bully and menace.
            Lastly, it all too clear that the embargo has foolishly closed off a very good market for
            American goods.   At long last, a few US corporations are trying to end the embargo. 

                   But, American citizens, by themselves, have no effect on ending this policy.  If they
           do travel to Cuba, they are subject to arrest and fine for "aiding the enemy".  Freedom for
           Americans to travel to Cuba would surely help break down cold war stereotypes.  There's
           little question that most Amercian tourist and agriculture businesses would love to have
           the foolishness of this Embergo be ended.

                     Much of the rest of the world is already traveling to and trading with Cuba.  Why should they
           be allowed to grow extensive trade relationships with Cuba, when Americans, only 90 miles away, cannot? 
           Cuban music is great, too.   Canadians view this advertisement to come to Cuba.
            http://www.gocuba.ca/en/videos.asp Cuban Tourist Board in Cuba.

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             "While we grouse, the world sells. Italian telecomm, French hotels, and Korean automakers
            are more than happy to trade with an island 90 miles off our shores. Of course, Cuba is not a
            huge market: The island is the size of Pennsylvania, but its population is only 11 million and its
            G.D.P. a mere $46 billion.  By comparison, Vietnam, the last Communist country with which we
            ended a dubious embargo,  is 85 million strong, with a G.D.P. of $262 billion."

            (Source: http://www.portfolio.com/views/columns/2007/11/19/Cuba-Embargo-Reasons-to-End )   

                    It's not easy these days.  But the Cuban Embargo makes America look even more to be
            a stupid, stubborn bully.   Each year, Cuba asks the UN for a vote of condemnation of the
            embargo.  And each year the vote is something like, 183 to 4!  The US position is usually
            backed by Israel and either Palua and the Marshall Isalnds or Romania and Uzbekhistan.!

                   Pro-Embargo Cuban émigrés counter this by saying:
Do not be fooled by arguments that more US trade will bring freedom to Cubans. "American companies
             that would be doing business in Cuba will be dealing with the Government, not with private citizens. The
             benefits would be going to Castro's acolytes, not to the Cuban people. The net result would be to help
             Castro and his successors extend and consolidate their tyranny. They will have more dollars to subvert other
             regimes in Latin America."

                 I answer. 

             (1) Your policy of Embargo has already failed.  The Embargo is not hurting Castro or Communists
             there.  It is hurting American business....

             (2) Maybe, Cuba will change slowly.  Maybe, it will change not at all.  Maybe, the wealthiest
             Cubans will not be able to return to their former plantations.  Maybe, United Fruit will not
             be compensated.   So what! They invested overseas.  The laws of Cuba apply there.  Not the US.
             Our government should not be acting as their enforcer.  United Fruit should not make
             American foreign policy.  Their issue is just not my concern.  As an American, I want my country's
             business, as a whole, to prosper as it trades with Cuba.  And, I want to visit this beautiful land and
             not violate some silly cold-war based law. 

              (3) Cuba is very likely to change dramatically after Fidel.  Change is the only constant. 
             Liberalization does take place in Communist countries as their economies grow and consumer
             demands proliferate far beyond what a command economy can plan and provide for.  Surely, that
             is the lesson of Eastern Europe and Russia.  And China, too.  The old Communist leadership is
             dying off around the world.  Pragmatism and commerce are forces that cannot be denied,    Give
             these forces a chance to play out.  Your policy is a complete failure

When I was a graduate student at Columbia in the the 1960s, I presented a seminar-research
            paper to Brzezinski, who became Carter's National Security Advisor and one of LBJ's devout cold
            warrior.  He had written books about totalitarianism.  Such systems were static.  Terror insured
            that.  He did not believe Communism could significantly change or evolve.  I spent many days
            in Radio Free Europe archives discovering the mounting evidence that this was NOT true. 
            Brezinzki did not like my approach and gave me only an A- in this paper.   But, I was proved right
            in less than a generation.  And he was wrong.  I believe I am right now.  And the Cuban émigrés
            are wrong, for the same reason. 
Commerce does increase the forces of liberalization!

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Confiscation of American Property

                           It is estimated that Cuba originally confiscated about $1.8 billion worth of American
                 owned property in Cuba when it socialized all private property.  Companies lile Colgate and
                 Owens Illinois lost factories.  Freeport-McMoran lost a nickel mine.  ITT was the major
                 phone company before the Revolution.  Altogether, about 1.5 million acres of land was
                 seized.  United Fruit had about 270,000 acres of land used to grow mostly sugar cane
                 taken as part of "agrarian reforms".   Two US oil refineries (Texaco and Exxon)  were
                 nationalized when they refused to process crude oil from the USSR 
                           As each side retailated against the other, the Cuban nationalization and US embargo
                broadened.   They were not born full and complete.  They ratchetted up step by step between
               1959 and 1963.  (You can see the history at  http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=259388 )
                I find this fascinating and quote much of this time-line at the bottom of the page.

                  Opinion:     Surely, government seizure of property under foreign law is one of the risks of doing
                 business in a foreign country.  Those companies knew the risks.  As I see it, their losses should
                 not be borne by all Americans.  Cubans have the right to do what they want to with property on
                 their island.  Businesses would certainly be wise to avoid investing there.  But other businesses
                 should have the right to trade with Cuba.  It seems very simple to me.  America should not have
                 its foreign policy dictated by corporations or by exiles.  We pay a huge price in our foreign
                 policy when we are perceived as imperialists and bullies. 

                          Many Cubans felt the US was at war with them, because the US backed dictatorship of
                 Fugelencio Batista ran roughshod over the interests of so many Cubans.  He got US military and
                 financial support precisely because he gave sweet-heart deals to foreign US nationals.  Batista rose
                 power after conspiring with Sumner Welles, the American Ambassador.  Batista was
with gaining the acceptance of Cuba's upper classes, who had denied him membership into their
                 exclusive social clubs. Increasingly, his energies were devoted to amassing an even greater fortune. Batista
                opened Havana to large scale gambling, announcing that his government would match, dollar for dollar,
                any hotel investment over $1 million, which would include a casino license. American mobster Meyer Lansky
                placed himself at the center of Cuba's gambling operation. At the same time, Batista sponsored massive
                construction projects -- the Havana-Varadero highway, the Rancho Boyeros airport, train lines, an underwater
                tunnel.   Brutal and Unpopular  As he delayed plans to step down from office, Batista faced growing
               opposition, and eventually, a popular challenge. In the wake of Fidel Castro's Moncada assault, in 1953,
               Batista suspended constitutional guarantees and increasingly relied on police tactics in an attempt to frighten the
                population through open displays of brutality. Though he made some political concessions between 1954 and
               1956 -- lifting press censorship, releasing political prisoners (including Fidel Castro and his brother Raul),
               allowing exiles to return -- his unpopularity continued to grow. Instability  As popular unrest in Cuba intensified,
               Batista's police proved adept at torturing and killing young men in the cities. But his army proved singularly inept
               against Fidel Castro's rebels, who were based in the mountains.Finally, the US decided Batista was too
               unpopular a puppet.  Only then was he forced out and Castro came to power.
Faced with Batista's
               military ineptness and growing unpopularity, the United States began to seek an alternative to Batista and to
               Fidel Castro. But Batista was determined to hold on. On December 11, 1958, U.S. ambassador Earl Smith
               visited Batista at his lavish hacienda, Kuquines. There he informed Batista the United States could no
               longer support his regime. Batista asked if he could go to Daytona Beach, where he had a house. The
               ambassador said no, and suggested instead that he seek exile in Spain.  Flight  On New Year's Eve 1958,
               Fulgencio Batista left Cuba before the break of dawn, with one hundred and eighty of his closest associates,
               having amassed a fortune of as much as to $300 million. Batista lived the rest of his life in splendor in Spain
               and in Portugal." ( http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/castro/peopleevents/p_batista.html )

                                                      American Seizure of Foreign Owned Property

                            I would add that  Americans have a long tradition of seizing foreign assets in the
                 US when at war.  In protest to the American Embargo, one Canadian province had legislation
                 introduced in it demanding the return of Loyalist property confiscated during the American

American Revolution

The Continental Congress declared in 1776 that the property of Loyalists was subject
                   to seizure. By the end of 1781, every state had passed a confiscation act, and Loyalists had
                   lost property worth millions of pounds. Article V of the Definitive Treaty of Peace (1783) provided
                   that Congress would urge the states to compensate former owners whose property had been seized,
                   but only South Carolina responded to this plea. With the United States itself refusing to provide
                   compensation, the British Parliament ultimately indemnified a large number of Loyalists in an
                   amount of 3 million British Pounds.

                                              Civil War

During the Civil War, both the North and the South confiscated property. The Confederacy's
                  scheme, adopted in 1861, required all northern debts to be paid to the government in return for bonds.

                      World War 1      
                        Congress enacted the Trading with the Enemy Act on 6 October 1917. This statute created the
                  Office of Alien Property Custodian, which took over and operated in trust about $700 million of
                  enemy-owned or enemy-controlled property. After the war, Congress decided to return most of this

                                              World War II

                       A similar approach was taken during World War II, when Congress amended the original Trading
                  with the Enemy Act and reestablished the Office of the Alien Property Custodian. Enemy property
                  worth millions of dollars was frozen once again. After the war, Congress enacted the War Claims
                  acts of 1948 and 1962, under which German and Japanese property held in trust by the United States
                  was vested and used to satisfy in part the war claims of U.S. citizens.
                  ( http://www.answers.com/topic/confiscation-of-property )  Japanese Americans in the
                  US were woefully under compensated.


             The History of Cuban American Relations
        and the Embargo

                 1880s     Cuba continues as colony of Spain but its dominant economic partner is the US.

                 1895      Rebellion against Spain led by Jose Marti; US remains "neutral."

                 1898      Spain grants limited autonomy to Cuba; US declares war with Spain on April 25
                               after mysterious explosion destroys USS Maine in Havana Harbor, killing 229 US sailors.
                               US defeats Spain after ceasefire declared August 12 and installs military government;
                                independence declared December 10 but US military retains control until 1902.

                 1902      Cuba granted independence but Platt Amendment establishes protectorate and gives
                               US the right to intervene at any time.

                 1903      US granted permanent lease to Guantanamo as naval base.

                 1906-09    US reoccupies Cuba following a rebellion.

                 1909     US-supervised elections.

                 1912    US forces return to Cuba to suppress Afro-Cuban protests against discrimination.

                1933    Military coup d'etat overthrows liberal government and installs Sergeant Fulgencia Batista,
                             who remains in power until 1959 revolution.

                 1934   FDR ends policy of US military intervention in Lat America. Calls it the;
                            Good Neighbor Policy.   Platt Amendment's right of intervention  is repealed.
                            Tariffs revised to favor Cuba.

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                                       Long List of US military interventions in Latin America.

                 1953                Fidel Castro leads first revolt; is captured and jailed until 1955. Declares,
                            "History will absolve me." 

                                                     The US Foreign Policy to Guatemala and Cuba
                                                     Becomes Dominated By United Fruit

                                       Eisenhower becomes President and appointed John Foster Dulles US Secretary
                             of State and his brother Allen Dulles was made head of the Central Intelligence Agency.   
                            The Dulles brothers owned stock in United Fruit.  Allen Dulles was on their Board of Directors.
                            Allen Dulles's law firm was retained by United Fruit. 
                                        ( http://www.politicalfriendster.com/showPerson.php?id=1838&name=United-Fruit-Company )

                                      In 1954 when Guatemala threatened "land reform" that would have
                            nationalized 209,842 uncultivated acres United Fruit's property, the CIA staged
                            a military coup and ousted the popular elected Arbenz.  Twenty-five year old
                            Che Guvara was working as a doctor in Guatemala at this time and witnessed
                            the US staged coup.
( http://www.unitedfruit.org/chron.htm   )  (The Arbenz government
                            did offer United Fruit compensation, but the latter considered it inadequate.  Agrarian
                            reform is considered a Communist inspired plot.) 
"Following the coup, Colonel Castillo Armas
                            became the new president. the U. S. Ambassador furnished Armas with lists of radical opponents to
                            be eliminated, and the bloodletting promptly began. Under Armas, thousands were arrested and many
                            were tortured and killed. A "killing field" in the Americas: U. S. policy in Guatemala   T
he coup unleashed
                            one of the most brutal military regimes in the hemisphere. Some 140,000 people have been killed and
                            another 45,000 disappeared in a U.S. backed scorched earth campaign to wipe out dissidents, rebels
                            and activists for peace and social justice in Guatemala. The abuses by the Guatemalan military and
                            its death squads were so horrific that even Amnesty International reported that they "strained credulity."
http://www.geocities.com/~virtualtruth/chiquita.htm )

                            Roots of Castro's Americanism:
Castro's anti-Americanism grew in part from the Eisenhower Administration's
                            support for the repressive Batista regime.  The US backed him because he was willing fervently
                            to protect American business interests very well in Cuba.  "Anti-Communism" to both Batista and the
                            Eisenhower Administration meant jailing those who advocated an end to the extremely
                            unequal distribution of land and wealth in Cuba.  Fidel, himself, "came of age in a remote region
                            of Cuba dominated by two sugar mills, the Preston and the Boston, owned by the United Fruit
                            Company, a symbol of American dominance in Latin America. His father, Angel Castro, had
                            come to Cuba to fight against the U.S. in the Spanish-American War. After Spain's defeat, Angel
                            remained on the island and made a fortune growing sugar cane for the Americans... It was the 1940s,
                           and the experience of the Spanish Civil War was still fresh. Spanish Nationalists under Francisco
                           Franco had identified with the Fascists, and anti-Americanism ran high within their ranks. Castro's
                           Jesuit teachers imbued the young Fidel with the idea of Hispanidad, stressing the superiority of
                           Spanish values of honor and pride as opposed to the materialistic values of the Anglo-Saxon world.
                           Once he entered the University of Havana, Castro came in contact with the writings of nationalist
                            professors who believed Cuba's destiny had been thwarted by the intervention of the United States.
                           The intervention of 1898, the Platt Amendment and U.S. economic domination had combined to strip
                           Cuba of its independence and national pride. In Castro's belief system, Cuba's political failure was
                           America's fault.... In 1948, Fidel Castro married Mirta Díaz Balart, the daughter of a lawyer for the
                           United Fruit Company. Castro came to know the exclusive and prosperous world of Banes, United
                           Fruit's company town. In Banes, the Americans lived and played separate from Cubans. Access to
                           the town beach was controlled by a gate, and only United Fruit employees had the key. Each time he
                           crossed that gate, friends at the time recall, Castro became enraged.
                           ( http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/castro/peopleevents/p_castro.html )

                 1956   Castro, Che Guevara and others land in Cuba and lead rebellion from the Sierra Maestra.

                 1958    US withdraws military aid to Batista government; New Year's Eve Castro and
                             9000 guerrillas march in to Havana; Batista flees the country.

                            wpe25.jpg (6301 bytes)

                 1959    US recognizes new government; Castro has unofficial meeting with Nixon.

                 1960    Cuban government nationalizes US corporate interests; US breaks diplomatic relations
                             and establishes partial trade embargo.                 

                     ( http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/funfacts/embargo.htm )

                 Eisenhower and Kennedy pushed Cuba behind the Iron Curtain.  In the Spring of 1959
             Castro, who had been in power for less than a year, came to speak in New York and
             at Harvard.   (I know, because I chose to go to a dance, rather than see him in Cambridge.)
              He was not then a Communist.  But IKE and JFK pushed him into that position as the only
              way he could survive.

"For the thing we should never do in dealing with revolutionary countries, in which the world
                           abounds, is to push them behind an iron curtain raised by ourselves. On the contrary, even
                           when they have been seduced and subverted and are drawn across the line, the right thing to do
                           is to keep the way open for their return."  ( Walter Lippmann, July 1959 )

                1960   wpe25.jpg (3519 bytes)  March 17,  US President Eisenhower approved a covert plan to
                overthrow Castro.  The island's biggest crop, sugar, could no longer be purchased by the US and
                the US embargo on oil and arms shipments to Cuba would be continued from mid-1958...

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                1961.   US Congress authorizes President to create a total embargo upon all trade, including food
                and medicine!  The created great havoc in Cuba.  Replacement parts for machinery, buses, cars,
                trains and tractors became very scarce. 

                1962   JFK expands the embargo to all other countries!  Any country that traded with Cuba could
                no longer get US Foreign Aid.

                1963   JFK prohibited travel to Cuba and made illegal all commercial transactions with Cuba.

               Cuban Missile Crisis.  Forced into the Soviet Camp and fearing another US led invasion, as had already
               occurred at the Bay of Pigs in 1961, Castro got Krushchev to pledge to put missiles in Cuba that could strike
               the US.  This led to a very real threat of a war between the US and Russia.  In the end it was averted.
               The Russian missiles were withdrawn from Cuba and the US pledged not to again invade Cuba and
               withdraw its own missiles from Turkey.  Seeing how dangerous this plan of isolating Cuba has become,
               JFK told a French journalist that he was prepared to drop the Embargo.  One month after JFK's
               assassination, Robert Kennedy urged Dean Rusk, the Secretary of State to end the travel ban.  LBJ's
               man there rules this out. The travel ban was interrupted only during Carter's Presidency.

               1964   "Asked why the US trades with the Soviet Union but not with Cuba, Secretary of State Dean
answers that the Soviet government is a "permanent" government, and the US views Castro as

                                        Terrorists in Miami
                       by Robert Parry, June 24, 2006

                    1976   Bush family ties to Cuban exile, Bosch, who bombed a Cuban airlines plane.   Bush Sr. was CIA director.

                    From   TV interview with Exile Orlando Bosch on Miami’s Channel 41:

                                           “Did you down that plane in 1976?” asked reporter Juan Manuel Cao.

                                            “If I tell you that I was involved, I will be inculpating myself,” Bosch answered,
                                            "and if I tell you that I did not participate in that action, you would say that I am lying.
                                            I am therefore not going to answer one thing or the other.”

                                            But when Cao asked Bosch to comment on the civilians who died when the plane
                                            crashed off the coast of Barbados in 1976, Bosch responded, “I
n a war such as us
                                            Cubans who love liberty wage against the tyrant [Fidel Castro], you have to down
                                            planes, you have to sink ships, you have to be prepared to attack anything that is within
                                            your reach.”

                                            “But don’t you feel a little bit for those who were killed there, for their families?” Cao asked.

                                             “Who was on board that plane?” Bosch responded. “Four members of the Communist Party,
                                             five North Koreans, five Guyanese.” [Officials tallies actually put the Guyanese dead at 11.]

                                              Bosch added, “Four members of the Communist Party, chico! Who was there?
                                              Our enemies…”

                                             “And the fencers?” Cao asked about Cuba’s amateur fencing team that had just won gold,
                                              silver and bronze medals at a youth fencing competition in Caracas. “The young people
                                              on board?”

                                               Bosch replied, “I was in Caracas. I saw the young girls on television. There were six of
                                               them. After the end of the competition, the leader of the six dedicated their triumph to
                                               the tyrant. … She gave a speech filled with praise for the tyrant.

                                               “We had already agreed in Santo Domingo, that everyone who comes from Cuba to
                                                glorify the tyrant had to run the same risks as those men and women that fight alongside
                                                the tyranny.” [The comment about Santo Domingo was an apparent reference to a
                                                strategy meeting by a right-wing terrorist organization, CORU, which took place in the
                                                 Dominican Republic in 1976.]

                                               “If you ran into the family members who were killed in that plane, wouldn’t you think it
                                                difficult?” Cao asked.

                                                “No, because in the end those who were there had to know that they were cooperating
                                                with the tyranny in Cuba,” Bosch answered.

                                               In an article about Bosch’s remarks, lawyer Pertierra said the answers “give us a glimpse
                                               into the mind of the kind of terrorist that the United States government harbors and protects
                                               in Miami.”

                      United Fruit, War Crimes and Terrorism
                    in Honduras and Guatemala 

                                                      "It was in Honduras that the United Fruit and Standard Fruit companies dominated the
                  country's key banana export sector and support sectors such as railways. The United Fruit Company was
                  nicknamed "The Octopus" for its willingness to involve itself in politics, sometimes violently. In 1910, Sam
                  Zemurray, who 22 years later would take over United Fruit in a hostile bid, hired a gang of armed toughs from
                  New Orleans to help stage a coup in Honduras in order to obtain beneficial treatment from the new government
                  for his own banana-trading company, Cuyamel Fruit." ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana_republic )

                                                   Guatemala: 1954   Since President Juan José Arbenz, a philosopher who was overthrown
                  in June, 1954, by CIA sponsored forces, Guatemala has had few presidents who were not generals.  The first
                 one after the resignation of Arbenz, Castillo Armas, countered the reform by Arbenz, and threw thousands of
                 peasants off their land.  Nine thousand Mayan Indians were imprisoned and hundreds murdered.  A Black List
                 comprised of 70,000 Arbenz supporters or suspected communists was compiled; eventually tens of thousands
                 on the list were exiled or murdered (Inside Central America, Clifford Kraus pp 30-33)  This is the beginning of
                 modern state terrorism in Guatemala.  ( http://www.ljcnet.com/guatemala-terrorism.htm )  To see how
                 paranoid the CIA was at the time, how they considered every peasant protest or worker strike a sign that
                 Moscow trained Communists were at work, read books published by Praeger, especially, the CIA's
                 Guatemala: Communism in Guatemala,1944-1954  



                1990 "In alliance with conservative Republicans, Cuban émigrés and the U.S. Congress pass the Mack
, which prohibits all trade with Cuba by subsidiaries of U.S. companies located outside the
                 U.S., and proposes sanctions or cessation of aid to any country that buys sugar or other products from

                February 5. U.S. Congressman Robert Torricelli introduces the Cuban Democracy Act, and says
                the bill is designed to "wreak havoc on the island."

                June 15. From an editorial in the NY Times: "…This misnamed act (the Cuban Democracy Act) is
                dubious in theory, cruel in its potential practice and ignoble in its election-year expediency… An
                influential faction of the Cuban American community clamors for sticking it to a wounded regime…
                There is, finally, something indecent about vociferous exiles living safely in Miami prescribing more
                 pain   for their poorer cousins."

October 15. U.S. Congress passes the Cuban Democracy Act, which prohibits foreign-based subsidiaries
                of U.S. companies from trading with Cuba, travel to Cuba by U.S. citizens, and family remittances to Cuba.
                The law allows private groups to deliver food and medicine to Cuba. (At this time, 70% of Cuba's trade with
                U.S. subsidiary companies was in food and medicine. Many claim the Cuban Democracy Act is in violation of
                international law and United Nations resolutions that food and medicine cannot be used as weapons in
                international conflicts.)

                October 23. President Bush signs the Cuban Democracy Act into law. Congressman Torricelli says
                that it will bring down Castro "within weeks."
(Note: The breakup of the USSR and the end of
                Soviet subsidies to Cuba have not brought down Castro!)

1996   Clinton signs the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (Libertad) Act (also known as the
                 Helms-Burton Act) which imposes penalties on foreign companies doing business in Cuba, permits U.S.
                 citizens to sue foreign investors who make use of American-owned property seized by the Cuban government,
                  and denies entry into the U.S. to such foreign investors.

                1998  The Pope visits Cuba and call for the world to open up to Cuba. In Boston, Roman Catholic
                 Cardinal Bernard Law urges US President Bill Clinton to end the 36-year-old embargo. "It is impossible
                 to reasonably support the embargo against Cuba while at the same time granting Most Favored Nation
                 Status to the People's Republic of China…" says Law.

                 October. The US Treasury Department investigates two US organizations for traveling to Cuba without
                 a license; Global Exchange and Pastors for Peace.

                  September 11. After returning home from a visit to Cuba, ex world boxing champ Muhammad Ali
                  calls for an end to the trade embargo against Cuba.

                  1999  The coalition of Americans for Humanitarian Trade With Cuba join the United States
                  Association of Former Members of Congress
to call on the Clinton administration to end the embargo
                  on food and medicines to Cuba. "The U.S. embargo on Cuba is the single most restrictive policy of its
                  kind. Even Iraq is able to buy food and medicine from U.S. sources," says George Fernandez, Executive
                  Director at AHTC. "As a Cuban American, I speak for the vast majority of us who do not think the U.S.
                  should be in the business of denying basic sustenance to families and children in Cuba."

                  2000   At a meeting of the International Chamber of Commerce, American businessman and ICC
                  Vice-President Richard D. McCormic, calls for an end to the US trade embargo of Cuba. "…
                  embargoes don't work," said McCormick. "They are counterproductive; they just hurt the people who
                  are in the least position to help themselves. I think that after 38 years it is time for this embargo to be
                  ended. Unilateral sanctions don't work." (Mr. McCormic serves on the boards of UAL Corporation
                  (United Airlines), Wells Fargo and Company, United Technologies Corporation, and Concept Five|

                 2001   In Washington, the Cuba Policy Foundation releases a poll in which a majority of Americans
                  are said to support the idea of doing business with Cuba
and allowing travel to the island. 
                  August 23. Organizers of the Latin Grammy Awards announce that they will change the location
                  of this year's event from Miami to Los Angeles fearing violent protests from anti-communist exiles.

Bush Administration turns down a Cuban offer to compensate Americans for properties confiscated
                  by the Revolution 40 years ago.

                  2002  In Washington, the US House of Representatives votes 262 to 167 to end the travel ban and
                  allow the sale of American goods to Cuba. 73 Republicans vote against the embargo. Rep. Jeff Flake,
                  the Arizona Republican who led the effort to repeal the travel ban, said: "This is all about freedom. Our
                 government shouldn't tell us where to travel and where not to travel."'

                  2003   U.S. Senators Max Baucus (D-MT) and Chuck Hagel (R-NE) introduce a bill in Congress
                  (United States-Cuba Trade Act of 2003) that seeks to lift the embargo.  The US House of Representatives
                  approve a bill ending travel restrictions to Cuba for US citizens. The bill, authored by Jeff Flake, wins by a
                  vote of 227 to 188. [Like similar bills on the embargo passed by the House, this one will die in the
                  Senate.]President George W. Bush establishes the Committee for Assistance to a Free Cuba,
                  and further enforces the ban on travel to the island.


               Cuban Photos from http://www.endtheembargo.com
               wpe26.jpg (13589 bytes)
               Cuba's bird-friendly habitat (photo by Arturo Kirkconnell)

               wpe2B.jpg (21112 bytes)
               Cuban bird life (photo by Nils Navarro)

                wpe2F.jpg (21045 bytes)
                Havana neighborhood (photo by Linda Garrett)

                wpe30.jpg (23756 bytes)
                Housing in Pogolotti, Marinao (photo by Linda Garrett)






                                 Nationalization and Embargo: A Broadening Spiral.                                                     
  This section is found at http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=259388      
December 9, 1958 - Revolutionary forces led by Fidel Castro take over
the government.

February 13, 1959 - Prime Minister Cardona resigns and Fidel Castro
ascends to the office.


April 15, 1959 – Cuban Government adopts the first Agrarian Reform
Law, putting a limit on private land holdings with the state
expropriating the remainder. The government offers compensation to the
former owners based on the property's current tax assessment rate
which has not been adjusted in over 30 years.

January 1960 - Cuba expropriates 70,000 acres of property owned by
U.S. sugar companies which includes 35,000 acres of pasture and forest
land owned by United Fruit, (now United Brands and Chiquita Brands).
United Brands owns an additional 235,000 acres of land in Cuba and
several hundred thousand acres in Guatemala. In 1954 the government of
Guatemala threatened to expropriate all of United Fruit's land
holdings in that country and in an effort to protect U.S. property
interests, the United States orchestrated a successful effort to
overthrow the Arbenz government.

June 6, 1960 - Cuba requests the two US oil refineries, Texaco and
Esso, and one British refinery, Shell, to process a shipment of
Russian crude oil. The companies refuse and on June 28 Cuba orders the
refineries nationalized.

July 5, 1960 - Cuba orders the nationalization of all US businesses
and commercial properties in Cuba.


July 6, 1960 - President Eisenhower, with the authorization of
Congress, cancels Cuba's sugar quota.


August 6, 1960 - Cuba nationalizes all U.S. owned industrial and
agrarian enterprises.

September 17, 1960 - Cuba nationalizes all US banks including First
National City Bank of New York, First National Bank of Boston, and
Chase Manhattan Bank.


October 19, 1960 - The Eisenhower Administration begins employing
unilateral sanctions against Cuba by first imposing a partial embargo,
which becomes a total embargo 16 months later under President John F.


October 24, 1960 - In response to the U.S. declaration on October 19
that it will impose an embargo, Cuba announces that it will
nationalize all remaining U.S. property on the island.


April 17, 1961 - The CIA backed Bay of Pigs invasion commences with
1200 Cuban exiles landing on the southwest shore of the island. After
72 hours of fighting the Cuban forces defeat the exiles. The battle
results in 80 exiles being killed and 1122 being captured. Several of
the captured exiles are accused of crimes of brutality while working
for the Batista government, and are soon executed. The remaining
exiles are imprisoned until most are released in December 1962. Many
of the exiles engaged in the fighting had owned property in Cuba prior
to the 1959 Revolution. Their holdings included 914,859 acres of land,
9,666 houses, 70 factories, 5 mines, 2 banks, and 10 sugar mills.


February 7, 1962 - President Kennedy expands the Cuban embargo to a
total embargo except for the non-subsidized sale of food and

March 23, 1962 - The US extends the trade embargo to include all
imports of all goods made from Cuban materials or containing any Cuban
materials, even if made in other countries.


October 22, 1962 - President Kennedy announces to the world that the
Soviet Union has deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba. This incident
brings the world to the brink of nuclear war. Five days later the
Cuban Missile Crisis is resolved with the Soviet Union agreeing to
remove its missiles from Cuba and the US agreeing not to invade Cuba
and to remove US missiles from Turkey. However the incident results in
cementing a relationship between the Soviet Union and Cuba that lasts
nearly 30 years and injects over $100 billion of Soviet aid and loans
into Cuba.


May 5, 1966 - The U.S. expands the embargo as Congress passes the Food
For Peace Act which outlaws food shipments to any country that sells
or ships strategic or non-strategic goods to Cuba except for certain
circumstances in which the President may allow shipments of medical
supplies and non-strategic goods.


        Further readings: 
wpe25.jpg (9670 bytes)   Noam Chomsky  Lecture at Harvard on American Foreign Policy.    1985       http://www.chomsky.info/index.htm

                The 1904 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, proclaiming a right for the United States to intervene to stabilize weak states in the region, further weakened European influence in Latin America and established U.S. regional hegemony.                                



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